So as mentioned in part 1, the first section of the lesson I observed recapped interactively both the problem at hand, and the deduced fact that 2/5 divided by 3/4 was a valid approach to solving it.

In my mind, whilst there was undoubtedly a *lot* of time put into reaching this point, a really nice advantage of doing so is that the students are not only invested in the problem far more than they might have been otherwise, but they’re also seeing a kind of validity in the need for dividing a fraction by a fraction as a ‘tool’ to add to their maths toolkit. This aligns somewhat with Andrew Blair’s UK Inquiry Maths approach.

As mentioned in part 1, or at least alluded to, there is a much greater emphasis on manipulating questions to make them easier to tackle or understand. We saw it when describing how to get proportionately from 3/4 to 1, and the strategy played its part again in this lesson when students were given thinking time to try and tackle 2/5 divided by 3/4. The teacher essentially said something along the lines of ‘i’m going to give you some time to think about this and i want you to see what you can find out’ as his instruction, and then walked the room as students diligently worked away independently of one another trying to make a dent in the problem. This fascinates me for a couple of reasons. Firstly, it seems initially to ask students to solve something they don’t have the tools to solve, until you realise that actually they do, they just haven’t been instructed that they do. Nor do they know any quick algorithms – which is exactly the point – they get to study it mathematically, think, ponder, try out ideas, fail, try again, predict, confirm and so forth. They do what real mathematicians do, and some of them do it really well.

The most rewarding part for me is that all the ideas and approaches are collated and discussed on the board as a group, so no particular approach is preferred, or ignored. All are equally valid at this stage, and later students will debate which is/are most efficient and why.

Before we get to the different methods, I should add that all the lessons I observed used only blackboards / whiteboards, large pieces of paper (some pre-prepared with things for reference, or enlarged versions of diagrams, some would be written on live to copy down student ideas for all the class to see) and magnets to hold things in place. No technology whatsoever, apart from a visualiser in two lessons. This may seem at odds with the notion of Japan being technologically superior to the universe, however seeing it first hand I’m sold that interactive whiteboards are the devil (I was before if I’m honest, but this just made it brutally obvious).

Back to the lesson. After students were given a long time (maybe 15 minutes?) to generate ideas, the teacher began to display several fully formed solutions that students had created by themselves. Here’s the first:

The teacher asked the class to explain what the student was thinking. They had to get inside the head of the student without the student herself explaining anything. The teacher spent careful attention on where the 4 came from in the second line – why 4? What’s the overall strategy for doing that?

Students explained that the strategy was to make the divisor an integer, because that’s something they can work with and ‘do’. The fact that the divisor is a fraction is what’s stopping their progress, so their logical approach is ‘stop it being a fraction’.

The student was then asked to explain why they multiplied *both* fractions by 4, rather than just the second one. Their explanation was that they ‘used the property of division’, which after more probing referred to multiplying both numerator and denominator by the same amount to maintain balance. It struck me that perhaps then, the student saw the problem like this:

Or at least as a/b.

A second student’s work showed this:

Initially there was a mistake in the above working, but it was weeded out after the discussion about ‘the property of division’ in the first example. Again it was discussed in depth, and the class decided the strategy here was again to rewrite the problem so that we weren’t dividing by a fraction. In this case, both dividend and divisor are multiplied by the reciprocal of the divisor so that we’re dividing by 1 instead of a fraction.

The final method displayed was this:

Yet again, the strategic thinking is ‘stop the divisor being a fraction’, but this time we pick the lowest common multiple of both denominators so that we get rid of both fractions at once. Again a lot of emphasis is placed on the strategic choice of ’20’, where it came from, why it’s a good idea etc.

This all obviously took up a lot of time. And no doubt we’d be criticised in the UK for not moving onto independent work where students have 10 questions to solve etc, but I couldn’t help but admire the depth of discussion, and the ingenuity of the students.

At this point students were asked to spot commonalities between all 3 methods, and again some great responses were given.

“They all get the same answer”

“They all do the division at the end, not the start”

“They all make the divisor into a whole number”

“8 appears on the left in two of them”

That last point was focused on by the teacher. They revisited all 3 methods and explicitly added any ‘missing steps’ (ie, “show your working” for us UK teachers), and out pops the key similarity the teacher wanted them to notice:

This was a subtle but excellent point in the lesson. Making every step more explicit helped guide the students to spot similarities, but also to understand the maths. In one example the numbers were the other way around (3×5) and this was also discussed to make sure people knew it was ‘ok’ even though it looked slightly different. A nice quick recap of the commutative property of multiplication was led by a student.

So with this commonality, students were intrigued as to why it always occurred, and reflected back upon the original problem (2/5 divided by 3/4). Here the teacher began to pull the lesson in the direction he wanted more than at any other point. He explicitly wrote the question alongside this commonality to make it more obvious to students what it was he wanted them to see. Sure enough, they spotted that the commonality was linked to the question in that it was multiplying the dividend by the reciprocal of the original divisor.

The lesson drew to a finish with the promise that in the next lesson they would look into whether that could be generalised – which inevitably would lead to another long discussion(!).

**A few thoughts:**

The ‘hints narrow reasoning’ thing has definitely struck a chord for me, although as mentioned previously, the balance is incredibly difficult and i doubt there’s a one size fits all approach to this.

The amount of time discussing and probing ideas is also a really hard balance to grasp, and I’m not convinced this teacher had it right, but it was certainly better than my own efforts.

Discussing commonalities between methods is a really powerful teaching/learning strategy that I don’t do.

I wonder how many students understood everything, and how many might just shrug it off and use the algorithm with no further thought. Checking who is ‘with us’ in the lesson and adapting is something I think the UK do really, really well, and thoroughly.

Planning the most difficult lessons in great depth over time with other experts is exactly the way it should be done – down to the finest details of what examples you use and what questions you’re going to ask / anticipate.

I work with a curriculum that attempts this in the US. I encounter that about 60% of my students are not understanding the problem well enough to think about it mathematically and do just wait for the algorithm. My higher level students do come up with several methods to compare from time to time but the mount of time it takes is more than we have usually. Comparing of the methods is my goal this coming year, even if I have to use “fake student” data. (These are 9th graders that I do this with.)

This is the link to the curriculum I use:

http://www.mathematicsvisionproject.org/

When I was teaching full time in a class I found the same thing. For many students the aim of studying maths is to pass a test not to learn the subject. Pity to say that those who chose to rely on regurgitating selected algorithms to pass an exam were often the ones least able to master or recall any technique when they needed to do so. Students will always do better if we and they aim on increasing understanding , even if it does take longer to achieve. Unfortunately, schools and colleges need to demonstrate success, and the blunt force instrument chosen as the measure are exams.

I now work with students one to one or in small groups as either alternative provision or private tuition. In this position I find it a lot easier to concentrate on developing understanding which hopefully will allow the student to develop themselves a lot further in the long run.

Phil Wastell

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